Going abroad on a business trip or just on vacation, none of us is immune from such situations as:
- loss of documents, money;
- traffic accident;
- getting into emergency;
- acute deterioration of health;
- and others.
What should you do if you lose your passport?
If you lose your passport outside of the Russian Federation (other country), you must immediately contact the Russian (or your country of citizenship) diplomatic mission or consular office in the host country to obtain a certificate of entry (return) to the Russian Federation (or your country). If your location is far from your home country, we recommend that you contact the diplomatic mission or consular office by telephone in advance to obtain further clarification of the documents required.
In order to obtain a certificate, you must submit:
- application for the certificate (the form can be obtained from the Russian state institution abroad);
- two photographs (35x45 mm in size);
- internal passport (if available) or written statements by at least two citizens of the Russian Federation confirming the applicant's identity and Russian citizenship (certified in a foreign office).
In order to confirm his/her identity, the applicant may submit other documents: driving license, service certificate with a photo, etc. In this case, the foreign office conducts additional verification of the applicant's information.
What should you do if you are in an accident, attacked or robbed, detained by law enforcement authorities in host country?
Rather frequent accidents with Russian citizens abroad are associated with the use of motor vehicles. Therefore, it is necessary to show extra attention both when driving a car (if you decide to rent a car), and when choosing vehicles provided for the transportation of tourists. In case of an accident it is necessary first of all to call an ambulance (if someone is injured and requires medical assistance), wait for the police (transport police). It is recommended to insist on drawing
up a report at the scene of the accident. Sometimes a further investigation is needed to determine the cause of the accident and the degree of fault of each part.
If a theft or attack has been committed against you, first of all, you need to report the incident to law enforcement agencies for a possible crime solution in hot pursuit and an investigation. It is necessary to draw up a protocol, in case of theft - with an indication of the list of missing items and their approximate cost. It is also recommended to report the incident to the group’s attendant, if any, or to the representative of your travel company.
In the case of detention or arrest, do not resist, as it may aggravate the situation and provoke law enforcement officers to use physical force or even weapons. It is not recommended to communicate with the representatives of law enforcement agencies, as well as to sign any protocols and other documents in a foreign language without an interpreter or a lawyer, since such testimony, according to the legislation of some countries, can be used as the basis for criminal charges.
You have the right to require an opportunity to contact the nearest Russian diplomatic mission or consular office, or send them a written incident notification. Specific assistance from Russian consular offices may include assistance in connecting with relatives or friends of the detainee, monitoring compliance with procedural norms, including their compliance with local legislation and international law, finding lawyers, and clarifying all the circumstances of the case.
What should you do if you get into emergency?
If you get into emergency (military-political conflict, mass disorders, terrorist attack, natural disaster), if possible, immediately inform the nearest Russian embassy or consular office about yourself and other Russian citizens with you. If you do not know the telephone number of the diplomatic mission in the region, we recommend that you inform at least the representative of the tourist agency or relatives.
If you find yourself in an area of political military tension, especially a military conflict, try to stay as far away from the combat area as possible. If possible, it is recommended to leave the area and move to another place, choosing the safest route to do so. When meeting armed people who are not part of the local official structures, try not to draw unnecessary attention to yourself. Do not engage in argument or conflict, even if you are provoked. Unless extreme circumstances compel you to do so, do not disclose your foreign nationality at all to those around you, especially to casual fellow travelers.
Yet if you find yourself directly in the active zone of hostilities and cannot leave it, it is advisable to stay at the hotel and not separate from the group of tourists you know. You should also strictly observe, in particular, the curfew regime, if it is imposed.
If you are taken hostage or kidnapped, you should not resist. It is advisable to follow the initial orders of the terrorists or kidnappers. They may be unstable people and may behave unpredictably. If you feel unwell, it is worth trying to ask for a doctor or to ask somebody to bring you the medication you need.
Try to establish at least some psychological contact with the kidnappers. If possible, try to memorize what they look like, what their habits are, how they talk to each other and with whom
they communicate. If you are transported from place to place, if possible, you should also memorize all movements, including time in motion, direction, distance traveled, speed, any landmarks along the road, signs and sounds such as muezzin calls, church bells ringing, unusual voices, noises from construction sites, airports, railroads, etc.
The desire to "please" is often misunderstood by terrorists and makes it difficult to rescue victims. If terrorists force a hostage to make a written or oral (audio or video) statement of their demands to the authorities, do so only in the form and amount the captors insist on. Avoid making your own statements and assessments, as this may aggravate the situation of the captive.
During a special operation to free a hostage, it is recommended to lie on the floor and not move until instructed to do so by the special operations team; under no circumstances attempt to assist the special operations team in its rescue; assume that the special operations team will treat the hostage as a possible terrorist until his/her identity is determined; remain law-abiding and tolerant of the special operations team's actions, even if physical force is used on the hostage during the operation (e.g., handcuffs or tied hands).
Immediately after release, it is advisable not to comment to the media until a conversation has been held with an official Russian representative and appropriate recommendations are received from him.
What should you do in case of natural disasters?
One of the most destructive natural disasters is earthquake. The most dangerous places are near the so-called world earthquake belts, which are located on the Pacific coast of North and South America; on the east coast of Japan; in the central Pacific Ocean; in Southeast Asia; along the southern edge of the Himalayas; in the Caribbean region; in several Mediterranean countries; in Iran, etc.
Most accidents are the result of collapsed buildings and other objects. Earthquakes can cause landslides and giant ocean tsunamis (seismic sea waves) that can cause massive damage.
The initial moment of an earthquake can be felt in different ways. Sometimes, before an earthquake, a glow appears over heights, there may be disturbances in the operation of radio, television, electronic devices, spontaneous glow of fluorescent lamps. Sometimes, a few seconds before an earthquake, a strong growing rumble occurs underground, after which the first shock occurs. In other cases, immediately before the push, weaker vibrations may occur, during which the dishes begin to rattle, the suspended objects swing. Then the first shock occurs, which can last from a few seconds to 1-1.5 minutes.
During an earthquake, you should not run out of the building, as falling debris and crumbling walls become the main cause of many victims. You must wait until the end of the earthquake, after which you can leave the building.
Never try to get out of a building with an elevator, which may get stuck or fall into the shaft. A safe place to go is through interior doorways and corners of rooms. It is necessary to move further away from windows and outside walls as well as bulky furniture.
If the building is low and not earthquake-proof, such as a brick house, and it is possible to leave immediately, then you must carefully and quickly get out of the building and run away from it to a safe distance.
You should stay away from power lines. If you are in a vehicle, stop as far away from tall buildings and other structures as possible and do not start moving until the earthquake has stopped.
After an earthquake, try to do the following. If the earthquake happened at night, it is better to use an electric flashlight instead of matches or a lighter. If that is not possible, make sure there is no smell of gas, gasoline, or other flammable or explosive substances before using matches or lighters. Failure to do so may cause an explosion or fire.
It is recommended to cut off gas and water and turn off electricity. If there are small fires, try to put them out with your own resources. If you cannot extinguish the fire, you should take children and injured people out of the fire area to a safe place.
Do not touch bare wires or metal or wet objects in contact with them. If explosive or poisonous substances are found spilled, warn others about them.
If possible, turn on a radio to obtain information on the magnitude of the disaster and the actions being taken to deal with it.
It is also important to consider the following additional information about the specific nature of a number of other natural phenomena and the recommended actions to be taken in appropriate cases.
In the event of various kinds of natural disasters that threaten life and health, it is important to keep your phone ready and call the Russian embassy hotline number as soon as possible. When leaving for a trip, be sure to ask for this phone number. The telephone set that you have with you when you travel should always be charged. In addition, when leaving your hotel, your relatives or friends should know where you are going.
A volcanic eruption is a geological phenomenon as a result of which molten rock (lava), ash, hot gases, water vapor, and rock debris are erupted onto the earth's surface.
The main areas of volcanic activity are South America, Central America, Java Island, Melanesia, the Japanese Islands, the Kuril Islands, Kamchatka, the northwestern United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the Aleutian Islands, Iceland, and the Atlantic Ocean.
The hazards to humans are magma flows (lava), falling rocks and ash ejected from the crater of the volcano, mudflows, and sudden violent floods. A volcanic eruption can be accompanied by an earthquake.
How do you prepare for a volcanic eruption?
Watch for a warning about a possible volcanic eruption. You will save your life if you leave the hazardous area in a timely manner. Close all windows, doors, and smoke dampers when you
receive an ash warning. Put cars in garages. Place animals in enclosed areas. Stock up on self-powered lights and heat, water, and food for three to five days.
How do you act during a volcanic eruption?
Protect your body and head from rocks and ash. Volcanic eruptions can be accompanied by flash floods, mudflows, and flooding, so avoid river banks and valleys near volcanoes, and try to stay off the high ground to avoid flooding or mudflows.
How do you act after a volcanic eruption?
Cover mouth and nose with a gauze bandage to prevent inhalation of ash. Wear safety glasses and clothing to prevent burns. Do not attempt to drive a vehicle after the ash has fallen out - it will cause the vehicle to malfunction. Clear the ash from the roof of your home to prevent it from overloading and collapsing.
Flood is a significant flooding of an area as a result of rising water level in a river, lake or sea during snowmelt, downpours, wind-driven surges of water, jams, etc. Floods result in destruction of bridges, roads, buildings, structures, bring considerable material damage, and at high water velocity (more than 4 m/s) and high water rise (more than 2 m) cause death of people and animals. The main cause of destruction is the impact of hydraulic shocks of water masses on buildings and structures, ice floes floating with high speed, various debris, floating crafts, etc. Floods can occur suddenly and last from a few hours to 2 - 3 weeks.
How do you prepare for a flood?
If you are in a flood area, learn and remember the boundaries of possible flooding, as well as elevated, infrequently flooded areas in close proximity to your residence, and the shortest ways to get there. Let your family members know the rules of behavior for organized and individual evacuation. Memorize places of storage of boats and rafts. Make a list in advance of an evacuation of documents, property, and medical supplies. Pack valuables, needed warm clothing, food, water, and medical supplies in a special suitcase or backpack.
How do you act during a flood?
At the signal warning of the threat of flooding and evacuation, leave without delay, in the prescribed manner, from the danger zone of possible catastrophic flooding to a designated safe area or elevated areas, taking with you the documents, valuables, necessary things and a two-day supply of non-perishable foodstuff.
In the absence of organized evacuation, until help arrives or the water recedes, stay on the upper floors and roofs of buildings, on trees or other towering objects. At the same time constantly give a signal of distress: in the daytime - hanging out or waving a clearly visible cloth, fixed to a staff, and in the dark time – with light signal and periodically voice. At the approach of rescuers calmly, without panic and fuss, with observance of precautionary measures, move to the watercraft. At the same time strictly comply with the requirements of rescuers, do not allow overloading of watercrafts. During movement do not leave the designated seats, do not sit on boards, strictly fulfill the requirements of the crew. It is recommended to independently get out
of the flooded area only if there are such serious reasons as the need to provide medical assistance to the victims, the continuing rise in the water level with the threat of flooding the upper floors. In this case it is necessary to have a reliable means of swimming and to know the direction of movement. While moving out on your own, do not stop signaling a distress call.
Provide assistance to people swimming in water and drowning.
If a person is drowning
Throw a floating object to a drowning person, encourage him / her, call for help. When swimming to the survivor, consider the current of the river. If the drowning person does not rule his / her actions, swim up behind, grabbing him / her by the hair, tow him / her to shore.
A tsunami is a dangerous natural phenomenon consisting of sea waves generated mainly by the upward or downward displacement of large portions of the seafloor by submarine and coastal earthquakes. Generated at one location, a tsunami may travel at high speed (up to 1000 km/h) several thousand kilometers, with tsunami heights in the source region ranging from 0.1 to 5 meters. When reaching shallow water, the wave height increases dramatically, reaching heights of 10 to 50 meters. Huge masses of water thrown on the shore result in inundation of the area, destruction of buildings and structures, power and communication lines, roads, bridges, piers, as well as death of people and animals. An airborne shock wave spreads in front of the water bank. It acts similarly to a blast wave, destroying buildings and structures. A tsunami wave may not be the only wave. Very often it is a series of waves, rolling on the shore at intervals of 1 hour or more. Possible scales of destruction are determined by tsunami range: weak (1-2 points); medium (3 points); strong (4 points); destructive (5 points).
Signs of a tsunami
The natural warning signal of a potential tsunami is an earthquake. Before a tsunami usually occurs, the water recedes far from the shore, exposing the seafloor for hundreds of meters or even several kilometers. This ebb can last from a few minutes to half an hour.
The movement of the waves may be accompanied by thunderous sounds that are heard before the tsunami waves approach. Sometimes the coast is flooded with a water "carpet" before the tsunami wave. There may be cracks in the ice cover near the coast. A sign of an approaching natural disaster may be a change in the usual behavior of animals, which sense danger in advance and seek to move to higher ground.
Pre-tsunami preventive measures
Watch for tsunami warning messages and be aware of tsunami precursors. Memorize and explain tsunami warning signals to your family. Have a tsunami action plan in place in advance. Make sure all family members know what to do during a tsunami. Assess whether a home is in an area where a tsunami might be generated. Remember that the most dangerous places are river mouths, narrowing bays, and straits. Know the boundaries of the most dangerous areas and the shortest routes to safety. Have a list of documents, possessions, and medications ready to evacuate. Think through the evacuation procedures beforehand.
Think through the sequence of actions if you find yourself indoors, outdoors or in water during a tsunami. Prepare in advance a place in your apartment in which to put the necessary documents, clothes, personal belongings, a two-day supply of non-perishable food in case of a quick evacuation.
What do you do during a tsunami?
After a tsunami threat signaled, respond immediately. Use every minute to ensure personal safety and protect others around you. You can have time from a few minutes to half an hour or more, so acting calmly and thoughtfully can increase your chances of being safe from the impact of a tsunami.
If you are indoors, leave immediately, turning off lights and gas, and move to safety. Take the shortest possible route to an elevated position 30-40 m above sea level or try to move quickly 2-3 km inland from the shore. If you are traveling by car, proceed in a safe direction, picking up fleeing people along the way. If it is not possible to take refuge in a safe place, when there is no time to move, climb as high as possible to the upper floors of a building, close the windows and doors. If possible, move to the most secure building.
If you shelter indoors, remember that the safest areas are near solid interior walls, columns, and corners formed by solid walls. Move any nearby objects that may fall, especially glass. If you do find yourself outside, try to climb a tree or take cover in a place that is less exposed to the impact. As a last resort, you should hang on to a tree trunk or sturdy barrier.
Once in the water, free yourself from shoes and wet clothing, and try to get a grip on floating objects in the water. Be careful as the wave may carry large objects and debris. After the first wave arrives, prepare to meet the second and subsequent waves. Provide first aid to the injured if necessary.
What do you do after a tsunami?
Wait for the alarm to go off. Return to your original location after making sure there have been no high waves at sea for two to three hours.
When you enter a house, check that it is solid and that windows and doors are secure. Make sure there are no cracks in the walls and ceilings, no washout of foundation. Carefully check for gas leaks in the rooms, the state of electrical lighting.
Hurricane, storm, tornado
A hurricane is a large atmospheric vortex with a wind speed of up to 120 km/h, and in the surface layer - up to 200 km/h.
A storm is a long, very strong wind with a speed of more than 20 m/s, usually observed when a cyclone passes and is accompanied by strong waves at sea and destruction on land.
A tornado is an atmospheric vortex that occurs in a thundercloud and spreads down, often to the very surface of the Earth in the form of a dark cloud arm or trunk tens and hundreds of meters in diameter. It does not last long, moving with the cloud.
The danger to people in such natural phenomena is the destruction of road and bridge pavements, structures, overhead power transmission and communication lines, ground pipelines, as well as damage to people by debris from destroyed structures, glass fragments flying at high speed. In addition, people can be killed and injured if buildings are completely destroyed. During snow and dust storms, snow drifts and dust accumulations ("black storms") on fields, roads and settlements, as well as water pollution, are dangerous.
The main signs of hurricanes, storms and tornadoes are: increased wind speed and a sharp drop in atmospheric pressure; torrential rains and storm surges; violent falling of snow and ground dust.
If you are in an area prone to hurricanes, storms and tornadoes, you should get to know the following:
warning signals about an impending natural disaster;
methods of protecting people and increasing the resistance of buildings (structures) to the impacts of hurricane wind and storm surge of water;
rules of human behavior in case of hurricanes, snow and sand storms, tornadoes;
methods and means of eliminating the consequences of hurricanes, tornadoes, storm surge of water, snow and sand storms;
places of shelter in the nearest basements, shelters or the strongest and most stable buildings;
exit routes and areas of placement during organized evacuation from high-risk areas;
How do you act during a hurricane, storm, tornado?
If you are indoors during a hurricane (storm, tornado), it is recommended to move away from the windows and take a safe place near the walls, in the corridor, near built-in wardrobes, in bathrooms, toilets, storerooms, in sturdy closets, under tables. Put out the fire, turn off the electricity, turn off the taps on gas supply pipeline networks.
At night time, use lanterns, lamps, candles; turn on the radio for information; if possible, stay in a buried shelter, in shelters, cellars, etc. During a hurricane (storm, tornado), if you are outside, you should stay as far as possible from light structures, buildings, bridges, overpasses, power lines, masts, trees, rivers, lakes and industrial facilities. To protect against flying debris and glass fragments, use plywood sheets, cardboard and plastic boxes, boards and other improvised means. Try to quickly hide in basements, cellars and other shelters. Do not enter damaged buildings, as they can collapse with the next gusts of wind.
During a snowstorm, take cover in buildings. If you are outside during a snowstorm, it is recommended to wade to the main roads, which are periodically cleared and where there is a high probability of assistance.
In a dusty storm, it is recommended to cover your face with a gauze bandage, a handkerchief, a piece of cloth, and your eyes with glasses. When you receive a signal about the approach of a tornado, you must immediately go down to the shelter, basement of a house or cellar, or hide under a bed and other solid furniture. If at the moment of a tornado you are in an open area, then you should take refuge at the bottom of a road ditch, in pits, ditches, narrow ravines, keeping
down close the ground, covering your head with clothes or tree branches. Do not stay in a vehicle, leave and take cover as described above.
Mudflow is a temporary flow of a mixture of water and a large amount of rock debris from clay particles to large stones and boulders, which suddenly appears in mountain river beds and hollows. Mudflow is born after long and heavy rains, intense melting of snow or glaciers, breakthrough of water bodies, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. It arises suddenly, moves at a high speed (up to 10 m/s and even more) and most often passes in several waves in a time from tens of minutes to several hours. A steep front of a mudflow wave can be up to 15 m high and more. The rumble and roar of a moving mudflow can be heard at great distances. People, residential buildings, engineering and road structures may be in the disaster area.
How do you prepare for a mudflow?
Usually the places where mudflows can descend are known. Before going to the mountains, study the places on your route and avoid them, especially after heavy rains. Always remember that it is almost impossible to escape when caught in a mudflow. The only way to escape a mudflow is to avoid it.
Turn off electricity, gas, and water before leaving home, if evacuating in advance. Close the doors, windows, and vents tightly.
How do you act during a mudflow?
If you hear the noise of an approaching mudflow, you should immediately ascend from the bottom of a ravine up the drain, not less than 50-100 m. It should be remembered that the roaring stream throws heavy rocks over long distances, which, once they drop, can threaten life.
Actions after a mudflow
If you are injured - try to provide yourself with first aid. The affected areas of the body, if possible, should be kept in an elevated position, ice (wet cloth) and a compressing bandage should be applied to them. Find a doctor.
A landslide is a sliding displacement (sliding) of masses of soil and rocks down the slopes of mountains and ravines, steep shores of seas, lakes and rivers under the influence of gravity. The causes of a landslide are most often the undermining of a slope, its waterlogging with abundant precipitation, earthquakes or human activity (blasting, etc.). The volume of soil during a landslide can reach tens and hundreds of thousands of cubic meters, and in some cases even more. The displacement rate of the landslide ranges from several meters per year to several meters per second. The highest rate of landslide displacement is observed during an earthquake. Slip of soil masses can cause destruction and blockages of residential and industrial buildings, engineering and road structures, main pipelines and power lines, as well as injury and death of people.
You should study the information about the possible landslide locations and approximate landslide boundaries, memorize the landslide warning signals, as well as the procedure to follow when giving this signal. Signs of an impending landslide are the jamming of doors and windows of buildings, water seepage on landslide-prone slopes.
How do you act during a landslide?
Upon receiving signals about a landslide threat, switch off electrical appliances, gas appliances and water mains, prepare for immediate evacuation according to the plans developed in advance. Depending on the landslide displacement rate detected by the landslide station, act according to the threat. If the landslide displacement rate is more than 0.5-1.0 m per day, evacuate in accordance with the previously developed plan. During evacuation take the documents, values, and warm things and foodstuff depending on the conditions and instructions of the administration. Evacuate to a safe location immediately.
An avalanche is a mass of snow falling or moving at a speed of 20-30 m/s. An avalanche is accompanied by the formation of a pre-avalanche air wave, which produces the greatest destruction. Causes of avalanches are: prolonged snowfall, intense snow melting, earthquake, explosions and other human activities that cause shaking of mountain slopes and fluctuations in the air. "Collapsing" snow avalanches can cause damage to buildings, engineering structures, and cover roads and mountain trails with compacted snow. Persons caught in an avalanche can be injured and trapped under the snow.
How do you act if you are in a danger zone?
Follow the basic rules of conduct in avalanche areas:
do not go into the mountains in snow and bad weather;
while in the mountains, keep track of changes in the weather;
when you go out in the mountains, be aware of possible avalanches in the area of your way or walk.
Avoid places where avalanches can occur. They most often occur on slopes steeper than 30', and on slopes without bushes or trees on slopes steeper than 20'. At steepness over 45', avalanches occur almost every time there is a snowfall.
In any weather, one should not cross ravines with slopes of more than 30 ', and after a snowfall, it is possible to cross ravines with a slope of more than 20' only after 2 - 3 days.
How do you act during an avalanche?
If the avalanche is high enough, move out of the way to safety or take shelter behind a rock ledge or notch (do not hide behind young trees). If it is impos
yourself from your belongings, take a horizontal position with your knees pressed against your belly and your body oriented in the direction of the avalanche.
How do you act if you are caught in an avalanche?
Cover your nose and mouth with a mitten, scarf, or collar; as you move in the avalanche, use swimming motions with your hands to try to stay on the surface of the avalanche, moving to the edge where the speed is lower. When the avalanche has stopped, try to create space near your face and chest, it will help you breathe. If possible, move towards the top (the top can be determined by saliva, letting it come out of your mouth). Once in an avalanche do not shout - the snow completely absorbs sounds, and shouting and pointless movements only deprive you of strength, oxygen and warmth. Do not lose self-control, do not let yourself fall asleep, remember that you are being looked for (there were cases when people were rescued from under an avalanche on the fifth or even thirteenth day).
How do you act after an avalanche?
If you find yourself outside the avalanche zone, inform the administration of the nearest settlement by any means.
When you get out of the snow by your own means or with the help of rescuers, examine your body and, if necessary, help yourself. Get to the nearest settlement and report the incident to the local administration. Go to a medical center or see a doctor even if you think you are well. Proceed as directed by the doctor. Inform your family and friends of your condition and location.
Fires in forests and peatlands
Mass fires in forests and peatlands can occur in hot and dry weather from lightning strikes, careless handling of fire, clearing the ground surface by burning dry grass and other causes. Fires can cause ignition of buildings in settlements, wooden bridges, power and communication lines on wooden poles, warehouses of oil products and other combustible materials, as well as damage to people and animals. The most frequent fires in forest areas are grass fires, which burn the forest litter, undergrowth and underwood, grass and shrub cover, deadwood, tree roots, etc. In the dry period, when the wind blows, there may be crown fires, in which the fire spreads through the crowns of trees, mostly conifers. The rate of spread of a surface fire is from 0.1 to 3 meters per minute, and of a crown fire - up to 100 meters per minute in the direction of the wind.
When peat and plant roots burn, underground fires can occur, spreading in different directions. Peat can self-ignite and burn without air access and even under water. Hot ash and burning peat dust can form "columnar swirls" over burning peat bogs, which can be carried long distances in strong winds and cause new fires or burns to the bodies of people and animals.
If you find yourself near a fire in a forest or on a peat bog
If you find yourself near a fire source in a forest or on a peat bog and you do not have the opportunity to cope with its localization, preventing the spread and extinguishing the fire on your own, immediately warn all nearby people about the need to leave the danger zone. Organize their access to a road or glade, a wide clearing, to the bank of a river or reservoir, to a field. Move out of the danger area quickly, perpendicular to the direction of the fire. If it is impossible to escape
the fire, enter a reservoir or cover yourself with wet clothing. When in an open space or clearing, breathe the air near the ground - it is less smoky there, and cover your mouth and nose with a cotton-gauze bandage or rag.
The flames of small fires can be extinguished by smothering them with branches of hardwoods, pouring water on them, throwing wet soil on them, or trampling them by feet. Peat fires are extinguished by digging up burning peat with watering. When extinguishing a fire, be cautious, do not go far from roads and clearings, do not lose track of others, and keep eye and sound contact with them. When extinguishing peat fires, keep in mind that deep funnels may form in the burning zone, so move carefully, checking the depth of the burnt layer beforehand.
Drought is a prolonged and significant lack of precipitation, often with high temperature and low humidity.
Extreme heat is characterized by exceeding the average plus temperature of the ambient air by 10 degrees or more for several days.
The danger lies in the thermal overheating of a person, i.e. the threat of an increase in body temperature above 37.1' C or a heat disturbance - approaching a body temperature of 38.8' C. Thermal critical state occurs with prolonged and (or) severe overheating, which can lead to a heat stroke or cardiac abnormalities. Overheating symptoms are: skin redness, dry mucous membranes, intense thirst. Further loss of consciousness, cardiac arrest and respiratory arrest are possible.
How do you act during a drought (extreme heat)?
It is recommended to avoid exposure to high temperature. Light-colored, airtight clothing (preferably cotton) and a hat should be worn. It is important to remember that burnt skin stops sweating and cooling. Move slowly, try to be in the shade more often. Do not drink beer and other alcoholic beverages, as this will worsen your general condition. Ask your doctor if you need additional salt intake during a heat wave.
In case of thermal shock, immediately move into the shade, wind or take a shower, drink plenty of water slowly. Try to cool your body to avoid heat stroke. In case of loss of consciousness by someone around you, perform resuscitation measures (give heart massage and artificial respiration). Remember that fires are more likely during drought.
Before travelling outside the country, it is strongly recommended by diplomats to carefully read the information, which is regularly updated on the website of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the "Going Abroad" section. A mobile application "Foreign Assistant" is also available there. And finally, the main advice – do not disregard the insurance and do not go abroad without taking care of a financial reserve in case of emergency.